HPV screening for cervical cancer is also available now in India as this is the causative organism.
Because of high specificity, a single negative HPV DNA test can provide longer intervals of 5-10 years reassurance against for rescreening cervical cancer
HPV negativity alone (or) in combination with negative cytology signifies a longer disease-free interval than being negative for cytology alone.
Women with HPV testing showed a significant reduction in advanced cancer and cervical cause death compared with no screening.
High participation in screening and treatment of pre-cancer and cancer are critical to successful screening programs leading to reduce disease burden in all settings.
Role of HPV vaccine, Health promotion, and education is cervical cancer control
The vaccine is highly effective, adequate safety and tolerability and long-term protection.
The vaccine needs to be administered with 3 doses over a 6 months period and recommended to female aged 9-26 years and most effective is given before the female first sexual encounter.
Many high-income countries have introduced HPV vaccine into routine vaccination program.
However regular screening is still recommended following the vaccination also, as it does not confer protection from other HPV strains.
According to WHO health education and promotion should be an integral part of any national cervical cancer control program.
Prevention of cervical cancer through screening has been identified as one of the main goals of the national cancer control program (NCCP) of the Government of India.
Recommendation of cancer screening
The combined test of PAP SMEAR with LBC and high HPV DNA testing for women aged 30-65years for every 5years (or) either Pap Smear alone every 3 years.
Only HPV DNA testing every 5 years up to the age of 65 years is also recommended.
If HPV DNA test is positive, treatment depends on PAP SMEAR test.
Good quality pap smear needs to be ensured every 3 years until the age of 65 years.
So, what next after screening:
If PAP SMEAR result negative repeat test every 3 years.
If screening is positive by any method diagnosis is done by COLPOSROPY.
India contributes to over 25% of the disease burden and more than 26% of cervical death worldwide. Because of this cervical cancer screening in India is very important.